奥迪R8:天生王者 动力无限

发布时间:2010-07-14
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勒芒赛无疑是奥迪赛车部工程师们面临的最严峻挑战,因为它所要求的工程学水平要远远超过仅仅将所有系统只保持短时间的超高性能。除了必要的顶级性能和优异的驱动力外,长距离汽车赛的关键在于持久力和可靠性,以及最适宜的人类环境学设计。这些赛车基因被巧妙地移植到公路型运动车上,再配以激动人心的设计,奥迪R8绝对独树一帜、引人注目。

外观设计

奥迪R8车身宽广,紧贴路面,雄浑醒目的车身尾部犹如强悍的肌肉,整车如同一名随时蓄势待发的运动健将。安装在驾驶员座舱后的发动机位置决定了它特有的车身比例,这种格局正是典型赛车风格的体现。此类车型格局设计中最经典的例子,是奥迪R8的早期车型,由奥迪公司的前身——汽车联盟股份公司为国际汽车大奖赛设计的Type C系列车型。将发动机安置在中心位置优化了车身前后重量的比例,促进了驱动力的发挥,以奥迪R8为例,车身前后重量比例为44 : 56。

车身外部线条高度紧凑。车身前部和具有优雅曲线的车顶融为一体,正是这浑然一体的流畅线条,使这辆双座运动型轿车凸现出清晰的奥迪特质。

侧面线条同样体现了奥迪家族的特征。轮拱上方的动感线条和侧翼线条将车身前部、侧面和后部连在了一起,车门与侧边导流风口的过渡部分的设计给人留下深刻的印象。

奥迪R8的驾驶舱更靠前——这是典型的中置发动机赛车的特征,这样的视觉效果立刻让人将它与同名赛车联系在一起。V8 FSI发动机安装在驾驶舱和后轴之间,无论是透过宽大的盾形后挡风玻璃,还是从汽车内部,都可以看到这款设计完美、做工精巧的工程学杰作。

此款车型宽为1 900mm,但长度和高度却分别只有4 430mm和1 250mm,而这正是真正的赛车的车身比例。2 650mm的轴距为超大的驾驶舱提供了更多空间。在车门后方的轮拱和车顶之间,配有宽大的叶面侧空气进气口,为V8发动机的进气及冷却提供足够的风量,侧边风叶的漆面效果与车身的颜色配合得天衣无缝。


图1 驾驶舱内将多种功能与用户友好性完美结合

梯形奥迪单幅格栅是整个车身前部最醒目的部分,加大尺寸的进气口从左右两侧将其围住。奥迪的四环标志有史以来首次出现在进气格栅上方的汽车发动机罩上。创新的LED前大灯线条简洁明快,覆盖着透明的玻璃灯罩,为进气口顶部增添了奔腾的活力。

奥迪R8是奥迪首款可以提供全部前大灯功能组合选装的量产车型,LED大灯组合包括双列直插组装、主光灯、日间灯光和指示灯光。LED代表着较传统灯泡有着巨大优势的新科技,它有着更长的使用寿命。由于LED灯所需要的空间比传统灯泡更小,所以它能赋予设计者们更大的创作自由。奥迪R8上运用的LED技术三维主前大灯设计,使得整车格外引人注目、令人心动。

仿生学、或者说是从自然中获得的设计灵感,已被运用于奥迪R8前大灯的设计中。前大灯被设计成开口松果的形状,反射镜被集中布置,配合强大的LED发射系统,将多片LED强力集中成光束,产生高亮度的光,行驶灯的灯光匀称而明亮。主前大灯内部反射镜的设计风格受到悉尼歌剧院的建筑特色的启发。与之相反,日间照明灯像细窄的带子一般,将前大灯的下侧分隔开,产生独具特色的光信号,给人以充满创意的视觉感受。

凹凸曲面的间隔交替,勾勒出车身尾部的侧面线条。车尾清晰的分离界面下有一块平坦的垂直面,而奥迪R8尾灯环绕于该垂直面的侧边上——此处也同样采用了LED技术。第三条刹车灯饰条横贯车顶的整个宽面,形成了清晰的发动机舱盖终止线。

另一大视觉工具的特色配置是正对着这款运动轿车的心脏——V8发动机的选装件——白色LED组灯,白色LED组灯为迂回复杂的发动机舱提供了高亮度照明,令发动机即使在夜间也清晰可辨。

位于尾部保险杠上的两个大尺寸扩散器开口,体现了奥迪R8的造型设计非常忠于空气动力学原理。两对圆形的双排气管各自位于左右两边的扩散器开口上方。尾部安装的自动伸展式后扰流板可帮助R8更充分地利用风力。扰流板可以产生附加的下压力,增强由车身底部的空气动力学特性或由扩散器产生的吸气作用。当车辆低速行驶时,后扰流板会自动收缩,保持车身水平。

内饰系统

在整个充满动感的车身内部,以驾驶员为中心的驾驶舱结构为主导概念,它将驾驶员、仪表盘和高中控台融为一体。中控台上部的仪表盘微微向驾驶员倾斜。平底的方向盘具有典型的奥迪运动车型风格,并且便于驾驶员出入。

奥迪R8的设计始终贯彻“功能决定形式”这一理念。除了以驾驶员为中心的结构之外,侧窗窗框也体现了该车型对功能性的关注,其材质的选择具有高度的质感和舒适手感。在驾驶员座上环顾四周,就如同身处R8赛车之中,驾驶舱内所有元素的风格和布局都注重驾驶本质——一切以驾驶员为中心。

颜色的使用和整体氛围的营造都体现了美学和人体工程学的完美结合——黑色调更加强调了工程学的元素,让人再次联想到激情无限的赛车世界。顶级的工艺加上高品质材质的应用,进一步强调了专业功能性与人体工程学风格。

赛车座椅的标配材质是皮质/Alcantara组合,也可选择全皮质座椅。此外,奥迪R8也可装备由quattro 公司特别开发的桶状座椅。车内两位乘员有充分的活动空间,舒适度远远超出高品质的赛车标准。座椅后部的空间可以放置大型的储物包,甚至可以放置两个高尔夫球包。前部的行李箱容积为100L。奥迪R8提供大量具有钢琴漆或Carbon sigma效果的装饰元素和应用部件,客户可以几乎不受限制地选择定制内饰。

即便是奥迪R8的标配,也足以满足客户对此类车型的严格要求。氙气大灯、LED尾灯以及日间行驶照明系统、18"铝合金轮毂、带有7"显示器的音响系统、防盗警报器以及皮质/ Alcantara组合内饰——这些只是丰富的标准配置系列中的一小部分。和谐理想的综合性设计,来自奥迪和quattro公司的皮质装饰套件,让奥迪R8成为用户个人的理想车型。

加上可选装的配置,奥迪R8堪称完美。Bang & Olufsen音响系统配有465W功率输出和12个特制的喇叭,播放出最优质的环绕立体声。带有扩音器的车辆噪声弥补系统可以根据路况和车速调节音响效果。依靠声学驻车系统和后视摄像机,即使在最狭小的空间内,驾驶员也能使车辆运行自如。加强版收音机/导航系统拥有大型彩色显示器和MMI多媒体交互系统键区,完美地将多种功能与用户友好性相结合。

驱动系统

类似于涡轮增压式发动机的最高转速范围,出色的峰值扭矩,伴随美妙的轰鸣声——这些都是一台完美的赛车发动机应有的特性。优质的发动机不仅应具有澎湃的动力潜能,并且适宜日常驾驶。

在高速8缸发动机中,FSI汽油直喷技术达到了一个新的高度。该项技术在奥迪R8赛车中的应用使其多次取得成功。这些数据显示了8缸发动机杰出的潜能。4.2L发动机在 7 800r/min时输出功率为309kW。在4 500~6 000r/min时的峰值扭矩为430Nm。在3 500~7 600r/min范围内,发动机能持续稳定输出不低于峰值扭矩90%的动力。该款发动机的最高转速为8 250r/min。这一原理的优势在于发动机能在高转速下输出高功率,在整个转速范围内保持平稳、灵敏的响应。除此以外,其灵敏度、活力以及类似赛车发动机的轰鸣声都是这款车型的得意之处。基于这些品质,在任何实际行驶条件下发动机都能提供澎湃的动力。奥迪R8只需4.4s即可从静止加速到100km/h,最高时速可达301km/h。

奥迪R8另一项直接来自赛车运动的技术是干油池润滑。它为最大纵向、横向加速度提供了理想基础,使V8发动机能安装在更低的位置,从而降低了车辆重心,进一步加强了行驶动力性。

该车型可提供两款变速器:手动6速变速器和奥迪R tronic无级变速器。赛车运动的影响再次在这里显露无疑:除中控台上的换挡手柄外,还在方向盘后安装有换挡拨片,后者体现了人体工程学的特色在赛车运动中的成功应用,给驾驶者提供赛车般的驾驶感受。线控换挡技术结合紧凑的变速器,提供快速的挡位切换和出众的比功率。“运动”挡模式以快速换挡提供最高的驾驶乐趣。当然,驾驶者也可以选择自动挡模式。

动力如此强劲的奥迪当然也配备了全时四轮驱动系统,通过粘性离合器将动力分配到前后轴。在奥迪R8上,具有传奇色彩的quattro全时四驱系统根据发动机中置汽车的轴荷分布进行了调整。

安全系统

奥迪R8采用了全铝车身结构,源自奥迪空间框架结构(ASF)的设计。它完美地实现了最小的重量和最大的刚度,为优化动力性能奠定了理想的基础,同时也使奥迪R8达到了出色的比功率:3.71kg/hp。

发动机中置跑车的长轴距和极低的重心,使奥迪R8能保持最佳的稳定性能,从而产生最出众的灵敏度,对驾驶员的操纵产生优质响应,同时提供高度安全性。

在安全系统方面,其标准配置包括:三点式安全带,带安全带拉紧器和拉力限制器以及安全带未系报警系统;两级释放的全尺寸前安全气囊(驾驶员和前排乘员)、侧面安全气囊(头部/胸部)集成在座椅靠背内;ESP电子稳定程序,集成了ABS防抱死制动系统、EBD电子制动力分配、驱动防滑控制系统ASR和电子差速锁功能;定速巡航控制系统;带倒车影像的奥迪驻车系统(含前/后声音报警);防盗报警系统;TPMS轮胎压力监控系统;以及安全转向柱;高度和轴向可调/侧撞保护,包括车门内的铝合金防撞梁,用于激发侧气囊的车门内部的压力传感器,车门内的碰撞缓冲保护垫、奥迪后撞保护装置等。

底盘系统

奥迪R8的底盘采用前后铸铝双叉骨结构。前悬架是三角形叉骨,后悬架顶端叉骨为三角形,底部是带有连杆的三角形叉骨。这种结构能够提供最理想的车轮控制,是实现转向灵敏度、最大转向精度和精确定义的自转向特性的最佳几何构造。齿轮齿条式液压助力式转向器向驾驶者提供最佳的助力反应。

为了实现最大的行驶动力性,弹簧和减振器装置刚度大,但是依然能够提供令人惊喜的乘坐舒适性。“奥迪磁性驾乘”自适应式减振系统替换标配的充气弹簧减振器之后,这种效果更是勿庸置疑。产生这种效果的原因是减振器采用了一项创新的技术。用可以通过电磁场改变粘度的电磁液体替换传统的减振液体,利用作用在电磁场上的电压使阻尼特性发生任意改变。“奥迪磁性驾乘”利用这一特性,在每种行驶条件下产生正确的减振力,优化乘坐舒适性和驾驶动力性,配备传感器技术的电脑在几毫秒内确定主要的行驶条件。驾驶员可以选择两种驾驶模式,一种可充分享受动感的赛车性能(可以通过降低电磁液的粘度实现),另一种则可以提供更多的乘坐舒适性。

奥迪R8标配的轮胎是18"(46cm)轮毂,同时也可以选装19"(48cm)轮毂。235/40的前轮胎和最大为285/35的后轮胎提供必需的抓地力。轮胎的结构保证发动机中置跑车始终能将驱动系统和底盘的动力,转化为最佳的抓地力和横向动力。

Audi R8: Motion + Mobility

The Audi R8, into which Audi has incorporated the name and the genes of the five-time Le Mans winner, is a spectacular sports car.

It is a fascinating driving machine and the sporty pinnacle of the Audi brand. The mid-mounted 420 hp V8 FSI engine, quattro permanent four-wheel drive and Audi Space Frame aluminum body form the basis for truly outstanding driving dynamics.

As the first Audi mid-engined sports car, the Audi R8 combines Audi's experience gained from numerous motorsport triumphs with groundbreaking design and the acknowledged technological expertise of the brand.

Exterior System

Even at the first glance, the caliber of the Audi R8 is plain to see. The car sits broad and squat on the road, the strongly accentuated rear end appearing to flex its muscles like a sprinter ready for the off.

The characteristic proportions of the vehicle are dictated by the location of the engine behind the cockpit. This layout is a typical feature of race cars. One of the most striking examples of this design - and as such one of the legitimate antecedents of the Audi R8 - was, and still is, the Auto Union Type C Grand Prix car. The central position of the engine is above all a boon to driving dynamics, as it allows for a weight distribution, as on the R8, of 44 percent to the front and 56 percent to the rear.

The car's body is highly compact in appearance. The front end and the gently curved roof arc are drawn in a sweeping line; a line which immediately marks the two-seater out as an Audi.

The side view also reveals familiar contours. The dynamic line above the wheel arches and the shoulder line interlink the front end, side and rear, imbue the doors and the transition to the side air vent with a strong presence, and even more emphatically highlight the typical Audi rounded wheel housings accommodating the big wheels.

The cabin of the Audi R8 is pushed far forward - a typical feature of a mid-engined sports car, and as such a visual cue linking it to the race car of the same name. Behind the cabin, positioned in front of the rear axle, is the V8 FSI engine, a sculptured piece of engineering visible both through the large, shield-shaped rear window and from inside the car.

The full aluminum body is constructed in the Audi Space Frame (ASF) design. Its perfect synthesis of minimal weight and maximum rigidity provides the ideal foundation for optimum driving dynamics, as well as delivering an outstanding power-to-weight ratio of just 8.18 pounds per hp.

Interior System

The sporty interior is dominated by a totally driver-oriented cockpit architecture, integrating the driver between the dashboard and the high centre console. The instrument panel above the console is angled slightly towards the driver. The flat-bottomed steering wheel is a typical feature of the sportiest Audi models, and also enables comfortable sports car entry and exit.

Form follows function: this design principle is implemented throughout the R8. Alongside the driver-oriented architecture, also reflected in the styling of the side window sills, the choice of materials also makes for a highly functional look and feel. Looking around when in the driving seat makes one thing clear: just like in the R8 race car, the styling and placement of all the elements in the cockpit of this driving machine is focused on the essentials. The center point of everything is the driver.

The Drivetrain

Turbine-like power up to the highest rev ranges, a high maximum torque, all combined with a fascinating sound, are the characteristics of a perfect sports car engine. An engine that is fascinating both in terms of its enormous power potential and its suitability for everyday use.

In the high-revving 420 hp eight-cylinder engine, the evolution of FSI petrol direct injection technology has reached a new high. This technology has also enjoyed many triumphs in the Audi R8 race car.

The figures illustrate the outstanding potential of the eight-cylinder unit. At 7,800 rpm the 4.2-liter engine delivers 420 hp of power output. Peak torque is 317 lb-ft from 4,500 to 6,000 rpm. And no less than 90 per cent of this maximum torque is maintained consistently throughout a wide engine speed range from 3,500 all the way to 7,600 rpm. As a result of these qualities, the eight-cylinder power unit provides maximum thrust in virtually any driving situation.

The performance figures are equally impressive: the R8 accelerates from a standstill to 60 mph in 4.4 seconds and reaches a top speed of 187 mph.

Two transmissions are available: a manual 6-speed gearbox or optionally the Audi R tronic sequential-shift gearbox. Here, too, the influence of the motorsport world is clearly evident, with a joystick gear-shift on the centre console and, most especially, the paddles mounted on the steering wheel, which are a long-established ergonomic feature in motorsport. The best illustration of this is once again the Le Mans winning Audi R8, which also enables the driver to change gear on the steering wheel.

Safety System

These days safety is an important factor for the 2008 Audi R8, it protects both occupants with seat-mounted side airbags and knee-protecting airbags. ESP combining with ABS, EBD, ASR, EDS functions and TPMS etc. are all standard.

The Last Word for the Audi R8

It is recommended you choose the traditional manual transmission, as Audi's R tronic can occasionally be a bit fussy in day-to-day driving situations due to its delayed shifting reactions. But overall it’s a beautiful car.

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